Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is also known as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (EIA). ELISA is defined as a biochemical method used in many applications including microbiology, blood screening, veterinary medicine, and immunology to detect antigens and antibodies present in samples.
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ELISA technology is considered an important diagnostic tool in plant pathology and medicine. It is also used for quality control in the food industry. ELISA relies on specific antibodies to fix the target antigen. The detection system is then used to mark the presence and amount of antigen-binding.
TYPE OF ELISA
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ELISA can be divided into three main types: sandwich, indirect and competitive:
First, the "capture" antibody is associated with the well. Then only the protein recognized by the antibody is "captured" after the sample is added. Finally, the bound protein is detected with a second detecting antibody.
Detection and capture antibodies are also referred to as matched pair antibodies. Finally, the detecting antibody is detected with an enzyme-labeled secondary antibody.
In this type of ELISA, the protein sample binds directly to the well via absorption. The presence of protein in the sample is then detected using antibodies known as antigens. In this type, sensitivity is enhanced by multiple epitomes in each primary antibody, which allows amplification of the signal.
Here the presence of primary antibody is produced with the sample, resulting in a complex. If the complex precipitates, secondary antibodies are added to the well. Primary antibodies are only recognized if the antigen is not bound to them. Thus it can be seen that the secondary antibody competes with the antigen.